The City Library at Mailänder Platz, Stuttgart
The City Library at Mailänder Platz, Stuttgart  
Photo:  /  Stadtbibliothek Stuttgart / yi architects
In this light, recent years have witnessed the birth of a number of innovative library service concepts that offer scholars support and cooperation in dealing with digital data, documents, tools and infrastructures in their research and teaching. The boundaries between archives, libraries and research were thus redrawn long ago.

Memory institutions, such as music libraries, archives and museums, are a sine qua non for the study and performance of music. These facilities, which preserve and transmit rich bodies of knowledge, are primarily found in the public sector. They have a great many tasks, some of which overlap or interrelate. Traditionally, they collect and catalogue source material, literature, sheet music, sound recordings, audio-visual media, musical instruments and – especially in museums – objects related to musical life. However, thanks to the digital revolution, for several years they have also preserved non-physical formats such as digitisations of their own physical holdings, including files of music, musical notation, e-mails and texts (e.g. from posthumous estates). Equally new is their function as aggregators, for example for streaming services. At present, Germany’s libraries must respond to changes in information infrastructure and the prospect of setting up a National Research Data Infrastructure (Nationale Forschungsdateninfrastruktur, or NFDI) – a project discussed by Germany’s states and federal government. [1] All of this naturally affects those institutions con cerned with and actively involved in music information and documenta tion, whether owing to the research data they themselves collect or to their responsibility for providing long-term access to findings from universities and other research bodies. This is accompanied by upheavals in key activities and professions. After all, libraries face a new challenge: even relatively new types of re search data must likewise be collected, stored and made accessible. This influences the way that libraries work, forcing them to change and expand their modes of operation. As a result, libraries and their fields of activity are currently undergoing a major transformation.

A Max Reger autograph from the music collection of Munich's City Library Am Gasteig
A Max Reger autograph from the music collection of Munich's City Library Am Gasteig  
Photo:  Eva Jünger  /  Münchner Stadtbibliothek

Structure and tasks of music libraries and archives

Libraries concerned with music information and documentation basically fall into two types: public music libraries (or general public libraries with music collections), and scholarly music libraries (or music departments in scholarly libraries). In addition to libraries at musical institutes of higher learning (Musikhochschulen), broadcasting companies and orchestras, the range also includes specialist libraries that maintain musical holdings, such as libraries at music research institutes or the musicology departments of universities.

The world of archives also has institutions with extensive musical holdings, such as those associated with broadcasters, art academies or music publishers. There also exist specialist archives devoted to particular composers, sometimes with adjoining museums (see Heike Fricke’s essay ‘Music Museums and Musical Instrument Collections’). State and regional archives also preserve material on music history and cultural life, including, for example, the records of court theatres or collections of programme leaflets.

Many of these institutions are members of the German chapter of the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres (IAML). As of May 2018 this chapter had 215 members, including 154 institutions and 61 individuals, making it one of the largest in IAML. Founded in Paris in 1951, IAML maintains three official languages – English, French and German – and has 26 national branches throughout the world. Every year it holds an international congress at a different location. There is also a national congress in Germany, likewise held at different locations. The German chapter of IAML publishes the periodical Forum Musikbibliothek, [2] complementing IAML ’s international periodical Fontes Artis Musicae.

As befits its political subdivision into federal states, each with independence in cultural matters, Germany has no publicly owned central institution that collects (unpublished) musical sources, as the German Literature Archive in Marbach does for German literature. Holdings of individual institutions are mainly collected and enlarged by provenance, though historically established points of emphasis naturally play a role. Some libraries and archives with a musical focus also take responsibility for interstate or even nationwide tasks.

‘Before the information landscape was universally digitised, specialist searches were usually limited to library catalogues and a few specialist databases. Today, in contrast, researchers have at their disposal a virtually limitless multitude of digital information resources and search tools.’
Martina Rebmann, Reiner Nägele

Public music libraries
The task of public music libraries, or public libraries with a music department, resides in offering a wide assortment of sheet music, books on music, musical periodicals, sound recordings and audio-visual media from every area of music, whether for use on location or for taking out on loan. They also help by providing specialist information and supporting research. Recently public libraries have played an important role as a so-called ‘third place’, a gathering spot or living space with special opportunities for exchanges and encounters. Depending on the size of the library, the spectrum may also include scholarly editions, special refer ence works and secondary literature. Generally the offerings are freely accessible and mainly serve the purposes of practical music life, sometimes even including practice rooms. The libraries also place great stock in public relations by organising concerts, lectures and exhibitions on the subject of music. No less important is their role as a place of learning and a meeting place for all age groups – sites of information exchange for professional musicians, schools and the world of musical performance brought together. [3]

Figure 1
Public Music Libraries
Topography: Public Music Libraries
View map

Large public libraries also preserve histor ical collections. A good example is the Central and Regional Library in Berlin (Zentral- und Landesbibliothek), where, among other things, visitors may use a collection of more than 73,000 LPs represent ing the output of sound recordings in the former state of East Ger many. One of the largest of Germany’s public music libraries is found in the Munich City Library (Münch ner Stadtbibliothek Am Gasteig), with 52,000 books, 70 periodical subscriptions, 122,000 items of sheet music and 67,000 sound recordings, plus special collections of rare items and autographs. Other large music libraries are located in Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Dresden, Leipzig, Düsseldorf and Stuttgart, not to mention the large district libraries in Berlin.

Scholarly music libraries
The classical tasks of scholarly libraries – collection, acquisition, cataloguing, utilisation and presentation – also apply in general to their music departments. [4] Source material and research literature are indispensible for the practice of musicology, and they must be kept ready to hand with maximum completeness. In Germany, unlike Europe’s more centralised states, this task is spread among various institutions. It was not until 1912 that a German national library was founded in Leipzig (Deutsche Bücherei). Its mandate covered all literature published domestically, whether in German or in foreign languages, and all German-language literature published abroad. Only in 1943 was its mandate expanded to include sheet music. Following the partition of Germany, the German Music Archive (Deutsches Musikarchiv, or DMA), located in what was then West Germany, only began to archive depository copies of sheet music in 1973. The nationwide collection of sound record ings in West Germany came equally late, beginning only in 1970. After the reunification of Germany in 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig and the Deutsche Bibliothek in Frankfurt am Main (founded in West Germany in 1947) were merged into a single national library under the name Die Deutsche Bibliothek (known since 2006 as Deutsche Nationalbibliothek). The German Music Archive (DMA), initially head quartered in Berlin, relocated to Leipzig in 2010. A new legal mandate of 2006 gave the DMA, in addition to sheet music and sound recordings, the obligation to collect and catalogue music publications in the Web (audio files and digitised sheet music). Because of this convoluted history, there still exist gaps, especially in the systematic collection of all sheet music printed in Germany. This gap was and is meant to be closed by a consortium of scholarly libraries known as Collection of German Prints (Sammlung Deutscher Drucke, or SDD). Founded in 1989, it is tasked with the retroactive collection and cataloguing of literature, sheet music and maps up to the year 1912. The acquisition of printed music is shared by the Bavarian State Library in Munich (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, or BSB) up to the year 1800, and the Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, or SBB) from 1801 to 1945.

Reading room in Berlin's State Library
Reading room in Berlin's State Library  
Photo:  C. Seifert  /  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – PK

For historical reasons, the great state, regional and university libraries have music departments with antiquarian holdings (manuscripts, music prints, librettos, posthumous estates and bodies of correspondence). Today they also collect writings on music, sheet music (complete scholarly editions as well as performing editions) and sound recordings. Among the largest music departments or collections are those of the state libraries in Berlin and Munich. Important music departments are also found at the Saxon State and University Library in Dresden (Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden) and in Coburg, Darmstadt, Detmold, Frankfurt am Main, Karlsruhe, Münster, Schwerin, Speyer, Stuttgart, Wolfenbüttel and Hamburg. Similar tasks in research and scholarship are carried out by the libraries of musicological institutes and the specialist libraries of such research and publishing bodies as the Bach Archive in Leipzig, the Beethoven House in Bonn, the Joseph Haydn Institute in Cologne and the Max Reger Institute in Karlsruhe.

Conservatory libraries
Germany is noted for its wealth of tertiary-level conservatories (Musikhochschulen). All of them maintain libraries to serve their own students and teaching staff. At present, the Conference of Rectors of German Conservatories unites 24 institutions with libraries primarily open to their own members, focusing mainly on study and performance material. Some of them also preserve historical collections.

The music library of Detmold University of Music
The music library of Detmold University of Music  
Photo:  Andreas Klingenberg  /  HfM Detmold

Broadcasting and orchestral libraries and archives
Germany’s broadcasting and orchestral libraries are open only to employees of the relevant broadcasting corporation or to members of the symphony or opera orches tra concerned. Access to the archives of Germany’s public broadcasters by scholars and researchers was uniformly regulated in 2014. The German Broadcasting Ar chive (Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv, or DRA), a non-profit foundation of Germany’s broadcasting association ARD and Deutschlandradio, is also open to outsiders. One of the country’s largest media archives, the DRA houses large collections of audio and video recordings, written materials, publications and documents. The audio-visual holdings date back to the beginning of sound and video recording, thereby documenting the evolution of broadcasting in Germany. Major points of emphasis include radio broadcasting up to 1945 and radio and television broadcast ing in the former state of East Germany

Music archives
Music archives can be found in private and public ownership with a very wide variety of holdings. They range from the privately funded jazz-related Lippmann+Rau Archive in Eisenach to the archive of the International Music Institute in Darmstadt (IMD), an information centre on post-1946 contemporary music in Germany and abroad, to the German Folk Song Archive (Deutsches Volksliedarchiv) in Freiburg im Breisgau, which has been integrated in the Centre of Popular Culture and Music at Freiburg University since 2014. An equally highly specialised facility is the music archive of the Academy of Arts in Berlin (Akademie der Künste), which preserves posthumous estates and working archives related to contemporary music of the 20th and 21st centuries, mainly by the Academy’s own members and master-class pupils. There are also archival holdings from large music publishing firms such as Schott, Breitkopf and Peters; some are located in the firms’ present premises, others in public institutions such as archives, libraries and research centres.

Music information and documentation centres

Independently of local music documentation centres, the German Music Information Centre (Deutsches Musikinformationszentrum, or MIZ), a central clearing house for information on musical life in Germany, supports various groups of users. It has large collections of data on the central areas of musical life, including structural data on more than 11,000 institutions, large collections of statistics and specialist articles on individual topics, all with the aim of documenting and communicating the structure and evolution of Germany’s musical culture. A publicly funded facility, the MIZ updates its information on a regular basis and systematically prepares it for research purposes under many headings. The MIZ is linked with related partner organisations all over the world.

Comprehensive access to source collections, information on holdings, and materials for music and musicology are offered by the Virtual Library of Musicology (Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Musikwissenschaft, or ViFaMusik). Sponsored by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, or DFG), the project was established between 2005 and 2013 at the Bavarian State Library (BSB) in collaboration with the State Institute for Music Research in Berlin (Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung, SIM) and the German Musicological Society in Kassel (Gesellschaft für Musikforschung, GfM). Since 2014, ViFaMusik has been part of the Specialised Information Service for Musicology (Fachinformationsdienst Musikwissenschaft, or FID) under the aegis of the BSB. In addition to the participating institutions, the musicological community is closely involved in the further development of ViFaMusik. Its main offering is a meta-search engine into the musical holdings of major European music libraries, including those in Berlin, Leipzig, London, Munich and Vienna, as well as the database of Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (RISM), the tables of contents of standard periodicals and carefully selected internet resources. [5] Offerings such as ‘JSTOR Complete Music Collection’ or ‘Index to Printed Music’ are reachable via the FID, where the databases range from general reference collections to specialist data collections for public and scholarly libraries. Until now, because of licensing legislation, free access to fee-based offerings has been granted only to members of the German Musicological Society (GfM), the professional association for musicologists who teach, study or do research in Germany (at present the GfM has 1,600 members). An expansion of this circle of users outside of the GfM’s membership is currently being negotiated. The GfM provides ‘a forum for information and exchange of ideas for all those interested in concepts and questions regarding Music History, Ethnomusicology, and Systematic Musicology. […] The Society also promotes musicological research in collaboration with other academic fields. In addition, one of the prime tasks of the Society is seen in the communication of knowledge in all areas of music to a wider public.’ [6]

One important recent development is the joint project ZenMEM (Zentrum Musik – Edition – Medien), a consortium of musicologists from Paderborn University, Detmold University of Music and the University of East Westphalia-Lippe that has been in existence since 2014. It is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research as part of the grant programme for founding digital humanities centres. Among its declared goals are ‘to promote the use of digital methods’, ‘to set up corresponding digital resources’ and ‘to further expand standard tools’ in the field of music. Especially important is the Music Encoding Initiative format (MEI), developed from the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) employed in text research.

The above-named International Association of Music Libraries (IAML) and the International Musicological Society (IMS) are jointly responsible for several vital research-related projects. One is Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (RISM). Founded in 1952 and now headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, it references sources on music ranging from pre-1800 music prints, post-1600 music manuscripts, sources on music theory, and Arabic, Greek, Hebrew and Persian sources. This transnational non-profit organisation is funded primarily by Germany via the Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities. [7] Musicologists and performers have at their disposal, free of charge, the RISM-OPAC of the BSB in Munich, with a database hosted by the SBB in Berlin. In addition, since 1971 RIdIM (Répertoire International d’Iconographie Musicale) has been documenting visual material related to music, principally in the visual arts and handicrafts. RILM (Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale), headquartered in New York, has been listing writings on music, such as monographs and essays, since 1967. This international bibliography with roughly one million entries on scholarly studies of music also provides abstracts. Information for the German area of RILM is supplied by the database ‘Bibliographie des Musikschrifttums online’, offered free of charge by the SIM in Berlin and now boasting more than 360,000 entries. The fourth of the so-called ‘R’ projects is RIPM (Répertoire International de la Presse Musicale), which has, since 1980, listed music-related articles and illustrations from rare primary-source music periodicals from the 18th to 20th centuries.

Training and advanced education

As most German libraries are financed by the public sector, library services are mainly structured in accordance with the conditions underlying the civil service. As a result, there are higher and mid-level civil servants employed at scholarly and public libraries. [8] The prerequisite for access to higher-level civil service is a degree in musicology followed by an internship or post-graduate training. [9] Studies for entering higher-level service at scholarly or public libraries are offered with various degrees by technical colleges inter alia in Hanover, Leipzig, Potsdam and Stuttgart. Courses related to music librarianship can be taken as part of degree programmes in information and media studies. [10] The prerequisite for a three-year training programme for employment in the media and information services, or for mid-level library service, is the mittlere Reife, a secondary school leaving certificate roughly equivalent to GCSEs in Great Britain. The training programme is general in nature without a special emphasis on music.

Current developments

The origin and operation of the Virtual Library of Musicology (ViFaMusik), the on-going transformation of collections relevant to musical performance and research into online repositories, the generation of research data in digital editions, the changing behaviour of publishers (e-media, open access), the digital publication of audible music via downloads or streaming: all of these are symptoms of a ‘change of paradigms in archiving’, [11] as are the specific demands they place on data modelling and retrieval systems, algorithmic analytical methods, text mining, optical character and optical music recognition, and disciplinary and interdisciplinary contextualisation through linked (open) data. [12]

‘Digital’ is not just another term for ‘electronic’; it is ‘an episteme, and thus an order of knowledge all its own’. [13] In any event, it changes the millennia-old function of libraries and archives as memory institutions pure and simple. The growing presence of the digital, the increasing number of digital originals (‘digital born’) and the associated specific nature of encoded information (as opposed to historically generated knowledge) have brought about a seismic shift in the way we perceive search results, modes of access and ultimately the conditions of reception.

The classical library was a cult site that reinforced the continuum known as historical memory, which could be monumentally safeguarded between the covers of a book or durably conserved on sound and video recordings. In contrast, a digital library generated from linked data files can be used without references to history or cognitive references generated by librarians or archival administrators. As a result, a mandatory and historically legitimised ontology has become obsolete. The digital creates an ‘an-historical’ reality in a virtual universe. In principle, anything can be linked with anything else.

In the electronic library the traditional static catalogue gives way to dynamic search engines and discovery systems. Even RISM-OPAC, developed and hosted at the BSB to make data from music manuscripts available wordwide, acknowledges this dynamic principle and is constantly being expanded along these lines.

Digitisation Centre at the Bavarian State Library
Digitisation Centre at the Bavarian State Library  
Photo:  Hans-Rudolf Schulz  /  Bavarian State Library, Munich

Before the information landscape was universally digitised, and thus until well into the 1990s, specialist searches were usually limited to library catalogues and a few specialist databases. Today, in contrast, researchers have at their disposal a virtually limitless multitude of digital information resources and search tools, from the discovery system to specialist databases and portals to technical and institutional repositories and scholarly search engines. In particular, the wide-ranging and constantly expanding digital collections present on the internet, whether generated in accordance with the standards of librarianship (as in the Digital Collections of the Library of Congress) or based on private initiatives (as in the IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library), with a correspondingly ‘free’ and less regulated structure, all demand contextualisation and visualisation ‘on diverse platforms and portals in the internet, such as institutional websites, regional culture portals, the German Digital Library, Europeana or Archivportal-D’. [14]

Admittedly, extant analog systems that guide users to a library’s holdings, making them systematised and accessible, are not yet obsolete. Many conventional card catalogues with references to special holdings have yet to be converted. But this will happen with the passage of time and the growth of digitisation, which in evitably entails a conversion of metadata or even a new cataloguing system. Extant CD-ROM databases, and especially internet sources such as net publications and e-media of every type (e-books, e-journals, databases), must be sorted and archived as information with proof of their relevance to the subject at hand. Re search data in the humanities is usually ‘digital representation and processing forms of cultural objects which ought, in principle, to be presented in the same way as in traditional archives and libraries’. [15] The digital transformation of research itself, and of its publication, thus requires ‘not less but more preparation and saving of content’, meaning in this case research data. [16]

Digital research data can be ‘both the origin and the result of scholarly work’ and is ‘documented in regulated and machine-readable form, catalogued in accordance with international standards (ideally) and marked with authority data, making it amenable to both processing and interpretation’. [17] The many digital and hybrid publishing projects in German-language musicology, which generate such research data using music and text encoding (e.g. in the Edirom Virtual Research Group), must ensure that the data is securely stored and reusable once the project concerned has come to an end. [18]

Thus, in recent years even the traditional work of specialist librarians has markedly changed. Where it was once purely a matter of acquisition and cataloguing, it has now expanded into multilevel activities. The librarian is now a conduit and, at the same time, an agent of ‘knowledge management’ in dialogue with specialist fields and information technology (‘embedded librarianship’). The demands placed on librarians with regard to specialist expertise have grown accordingly. This affects questions regarding information technology, the ordering and organ isation of knowledge in the ‘ecosystem of contextualised and networked data collections’, [19] strategies for long-term archiving and utilisation, and questions of licensing and rights management that arise especially when holdings are presented online and reused.

In this light, recent years have witnessed the birth of a number of innovative library service concepts that offer scholars support and cooperation in dealing with digital data, documents, tools and infrastructures in their research and teaching. At the Bavarian State Library, for instance, these include the Electronic Publishing Centre (Zentrum für elektronisches Publizieren) and the International Image Inter operability Framework project (IIIF), which sets new standards for presenting digital images and data in the internet. Similarly DaFo (Daten für die Forschung), the internationally accessible free downloading service for high-resolution images and their associated texts (if already machine-readable); the possibility of imagebased similarity searches; and the development of application scenar ios for Optical Music Recognition (OMR) in the musicological information service Musiconn: all offer novel opportunities in the scholarly study of music and related fields of research. The specific demands placed on data modelling – authority data, music and text encoding (MEI, TEI), protocols, documentations, decisions on formats and standards and so forth – already necessitate an appropriate workflow and efficient and proactive resource management in the course of scholarly research, and not just in the context of a library’s collection activities. It is thus essential to establish, at an early stage, a close-knit cooperation when developing projects between scholarship and information infrastructure facilities.

The boundaries between archives, libraries and research were thus redrawn long ago. A cautious glimpse into the future also suggests that the traditional activities of librarianship will become less and less important, for ‘the future task of the library as knowledge infrastructure’ will chiefly be ‘to curate the basically infinite linked open data space’ [20] – a service defined primarily by technology.

About the author

Martina Rebmann has been head of the music department at the Berlin State Library since 2008. Before then she headed the music collection of the Baden Regional Library in Karlsruhe.

About the author

Reiner Nägele became director of the music department of the Bavarian State Library in Munich in 2009. Before then he headed the music collection of the Württemberg Regional Library in Stuttgart.


  1. See RfII – Rat für Informationsinfrastrukturen: Leistung aus Vielfalt. Empfehlungen zu Strukturen, Prozessen und Finanzierung des Forschungsdatenmanagements in Deutschland (Göttingen, 2016), online at (accessed on 16 July 2018).
  2. Forum Musikbibliothek: Beiträge und Informationen aus der musikbibliothekarischen Praxis (Weimar, 1978-99; Berlin, 2000- ), ed. by the German chapter of IAML. Available online from 2012 at (accessed on 10 October 2018).
  3. See also the MIZ’s focus on ‘Public Music Libraries’ at https://themen. (accessed on 17 October 2018).
  4. Martina Rebmann, ‘Musikabteilungen in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken. Aktueller Stand: Kooperationen, Projekte, Perspektiven’, Musikbibliotheken – Neue Wege und Perspektiven, special issue of Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie (ZfBB), ed. Michael Fernau, Reiner Nägele and Martina Rebmann, 59/3-4 (2012), pp. 129-36.
  5. Research options are discussed in Susanne Hein’s article ‘Musikrecherche’ on the pages of the MIZ at themenportale/einfuehrungstexte_pdf/08_MedienRecherche/hein.pdf (accessed on 16 July 2018).
  6. See (accessed on 16 July 2018).
  7. See (accessed on 16 July 2018).
  8. Information can be found in the internet on the home pages of technical colleges and hiring institutions, e.g. at (accessed on 10 October 2018).
  9. Further information inter alia at; and (accessed on 16 July 2018).
  10. Information on course offerings at; information on study locations at (accessed on 16 July 2018).
  11. Aleida Assmann, quoted from Alexander Roesler and Bernd Stiegler, eds., Grundbegriffe der Medientheorie (Paderborn, 2005), p. 25.
  12. On the standard technologies and technical terms see Fotis Jannidis et al., eds., Digital humanities: Eine Einführung (Stuttgart, 2017).
  13. Hanna Engelmeier, ‘Was ist die Literatur in “Digitale Literatur”’, Merkur 71 (2017), pp. 31-45, quote on p. 32.
  14. Klaus Ceynowa, ‘Vom Wert des Sammelns und vom Mehrwert des Digitalen – Verstreute Bemerkungen zur gegenwärtigen Lage der Bibliothek’, Bibliothek – Forschung und Praxis, 39 (2015), pp. 268-76, quote on p. 273. 
  15. Position paper of the German Association of Historians (VHD) on the creation of a nationwide research data infrastructure at (accessed on 10 October 2018).
  16. Elmar Mittler, ‘Wohin geht die Reise? – Bibliothekspolitik am Anfang des 21. Jahrhunderts’, Bibliothek – Forschung und Praxis, 41 (2017), pp. 213-23, quote on p. 219.
  17. Jenny Oltersdorf and Stefan Schmunk, ‘Von Forschungsdaten und wissenschaftlichen Sammlungen: Zur Arbeit des Stakeholdergremiums “Wissenschaftliche Sammlungen” in DARIAH-DE ’, Bibliothek – Forschung und Praxis, 40 (2016), pp. 179-85, quote on p. 182.
  18. See ‘Grundsätze zum Umgang mit Forschungsdaten der Allianz der deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen’, ratified on 24 June 2010, available at RatSWD_WP_156.pdf (accessed on 10 October 2018).
  19.  Mittler, ‘Wohin geht die Reise?’ (see note 16), p. 217.
  20. Klaus Ceynowa and Lilian Landes, ‘Neuer Wein in neuen Schläuchen: Von Wissenschaftlern, die nicht nur anders publizieren, sondern auch anders schreiben werden’, Bibliothek – Forschung und Praxis, 38 (2014), pp. 287-93, quote on p. 292.