Staff figures for the seasons 2000-01 to 2019-20
Staff figures for the seasons 2000-01 to 2019-20
In the 2019-20 season, the theatres had more than 16,000 permanent artistic employees in singing, dance, choir and orchestra, as well as in artistic management and non-performing areas.

The permanent artistic staff has thus increased slightly since the 2000-01 season by about 540 people (excluding actors and actresses). However, the number of permanently employed musicians (solo singing, choir, theatre orchestra) and dancers decreased by about 630 during this period.

The number of artistic personnel on guest contracts has more than doubled since the turn of the millennium (most recently: 19,257). The fact that fewer artists were employed on a non-permanent basis in the 2019/20 season than in previous seasons is probably due to the closure of theatres as part of the nationwide lockdown in 2020.

Technical, administrative and maintenance staff totalled 22,765 positions in the 2019/20 season.

Staff at publicly financed music theatres
Table: Staff at publicly financed music theatres


The theatre statistics are drawn from a complete survey based on written questionnaires submitted to publicly financed theatres and orchestras regarding their business operations (venues, range of events, attendance figures, staff, financing). Discrepancies between the annual figures may occur owing to lack of responses to the questionnaire, especially in the earlier years. All figures were compiled as of 1 January in the season concerned. However, especially with regard to the non-permanent artistic staff that is hired for special theatre productions, theatres may handle their own number structures based on an entire season.


Compiled and calculated by the German Music Information Centre from the various issues of Theaterstatistik, published annually by the German Theatre and Orchestra Association (Deutscher Bühnenverein).



  1. In March 2020, all venues were closed for several months as part of a nationwide lockdown to contain the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. In summer 2020, state-specific corona protection measures continued to lead to restrictions on theatre operations. This is likely to be the reason for the decline in the number of non-permanent employees in the 2019-20 season.
  2. Excluding actors and actresses.
  3. Management staff and non-performing artistic personnel (also in spoken theatre).
  4. Including evening attendance (also in spoken theatre).
  5. Technical equipment, workshops, make-up, costumes (also in spoken theatre), including administration, in-house staff, sales and trainees.